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Unidad frente al gatopardismo neoliberal

Por Jorge Coloma A. , Coordinación COP 25, Movimiento AC=A+CC y Asamblea por el Pacto Social.

Proyectados en un escenario donde la Convención Constitucional está en funciones y nos encontramos constituyentes que representan la vieja forma de hacer política, esa la de los 30 años, y aquella a la que aspiran los movimientos sociales creados a partir del 18.10. Las preguntas son ¿acordamos mínimos constitucionales? ¿nos unimos? Pareciera que la unidad y una correlación de fuerzas favorables al reemplazo constitucional son una condición ineludible.

Desde hace 40 años se ha ido imponiendo un Estado subsidiario con primacía de un mercado desregulado donde el crecimiento se ha impuesto como razón de ser de la política por sobre el desarrollo sostenible. La negación de la necesidad de esos acuerdos mínimos para reemplazar al Estado subsidiario sería un harakiri político. Este acuerdo sería uno de tantos. Sería significativo que estas fuerzas unitariamente acordaran principios constitucionales que garantizaran los derechos económico-sociales y culturales como lo plantea la Declaración de los DDHH. Que profundizaran en mínimos como la instalación de un desarrollo sostenible de acuerdo con lo planteado por la Agenda 2030 y, además, acordaran una forma de soberanía del pueblo que garantizara no sólo la capacidad para elegir a sus representantes, sino que además para decidir respecto a problemas sociales y ambientales en su entorno como lo requiere el Acuerdo de Escazú. Estos se redactarían como derechos fundamentales propios de una unidad programática para evitar el gatopardismo neoliberal.

Sectores neoliberales votarán por el Apruebo y quizás por la Convención Constitucional y esto es para que nada cambie constitucionalmente. Así se expresa -por ejemplo- en el decálogo de Piñera que en la práctica refleja la idea del “rechazo”, ósea, darle continuidad a la Constitución del 80. Esto, aprovechando además la incapacidad actual de las fuerzas por el cambio constitucional para ponerse de acuerdo sobre sus contenidos.
El punto central del decálogo oficialista es mantener el Estado subsidiario. Esto implica que el Estado sólo interviene cuando el mercado no entrega el servicio y ello está definido en la Constitución del 80 en diferentes artículos sin explicitar el concepto. En el decálogo se mantiene lo definido en el Cap. 1, Art.1 de la Constitución del 80 donde se plantea que la sociedad se estructura y organiza a través de los grupos intermedios. Este es el primer factor de la subsidiariedad que se complementa con el rol asignado al Estado para garantizar al sector privado “una adecuada autonomía” que les permita “desarrollar cualquier actividad económica” (Cap. III, Art. 21), incluso más, para “adquirir el dominio de toda clase de bienes” (Cap. III Art 23). Estos 3 artículos definen la esencia del estado subsidiario y Piñera lo reproduce casi textualmente en su decálogo: «El Estado debe reconocer y amparar a los grupos intermedios, garantizando su adecuada autonomía. Además, debe garantizar el derecho a desarrollar cualquier actividad económica, respetando las normas legales que regulen dicha actividad».

Ahora bien, si analizamos las políticas y prácticas actuales del gobierno su decálogo es tremendamente incoherente. Demagógica y nuevamente en forma imprecisa promete que «nuestra Constitución debe contemplar mayores mecanismos que permitan una participación ciudadana temprana en algunas decisiones públicas que sean muy relevantes para la Nación”. Esta declaración la hace negando hoy la firma a uno de los acuerdos más significativos para aquella participación ciudadana. No firma una propuesta clara y precisa que se encuentra en el Acuerdo de Escazú. Su ratificación implicaría respetar tres principios claves a considerar al redactar la nueva constitución. El derecho a la información ambiental accesible y comprensible, a la participación de la sociedad civil y a la justicia social de las comunidades en torno a proyectos ambientales. Piñera niega en los hechos esos principios participativos; no aprueba el Acuerdo de Escazú con argumentaciones absurdas como la pérdida de la soberanía, que para nada defiende cuando se trata de entregar a consorcios extranjeros de USA y Canadá la Isla Guafo de Chiloé.
En esta línea demagógica, se atreve a plantear que la “constitución debe consagrar el principio del desarrollo sustentable». Las definiciones sobre subsidiariedad y la práctica orientada a desregular el funcionamiento del mercado son condiciones significativas que impactan negativamente en los fenómenos climáticos y sociales que vive Chile. La sequía y el uso privilegiado del agua por grandes empresarios agrícolas, las zonas de sacrificio, la deforestación que produce la industria forestal son algunos ejemplos de la falta de compromiso gubernamental con el desarrollo sostenible. Piñera lo enuncia oportunistamente porque así lo demandan las grandes mayorías.

Dentro de su habilidad, trata de compensar con una vaguedad impropia de su cargo al definir el deber ser de «Chile (como) una república democrática y con Estado de derecho, en la cual el Estado sea más solidario y esté al servicio de las personas». Sin embargo, esto no es posible si mantiene en su decálogo el mismo principio definido en la Constitución del 80 al plantear para salud, por ejemplo: “El Estado debe garantizar el acceso libre a las prestaciones de salud. Cada persona debe tener el derecho a elegir el sistema de salud al que desee acogerse, sea éste estatal o privado.” O sea, como en el 80 no ha avanzado un ápice: El Estado garantiza sólo el libre acceso a acciones de salud que prestan servicios públicos y privados y establece el ilusorio “derecho a elegir” (Cap. III, Art. 19 No. 9). La atención digna está ligada a la capacidad económica del paciente para ingresar a uno u otro servicio.

Como complemento de lo anterior, además Piñera incursiona vagamente en temas referidos a nuestra identidad. Sólo atina al “reconocimiento de los pueblos originarios” declarando el respeto a “su identidad, cultura y ancestrales”. No está en el ADN de la derecha como herederos de la mal llamada “pacificación de la Araucanía” y como enajenador de tierras milenarias con sus cultivos autóctonos el reconocer a Chile como un Estado plurinacional. Ello implicaría comprometerse en la definición de principios que están implícitos en el Convenio 169 de la OIT, que entre otros acuerdos plantea establecer el reconocimiento de los pueblos originarios y “sus derechos sobre las tierras y los recursos naturales, así como el derecho a decidir sus propias prioridades en lo que atañe al proceso de desarrollo”.

La estrategia del gatopardismo neoliberal debe ser no sólo desenmascarada, sino que acompañada de la voluntad y la acción unitaria para ofrecer a la ciudadanía una alternativa que le dé sentido al cambio constitucional. La unidad de las fuerzas desarrolladas a partir del 18.10 y aquellas que son de oposición tradicional tienen un desafío de concordar contenidos, unirse para una nueva Constitución y dar garantías de que un nuevo Chile es posible: solidario, equitativo, democrático participativo y de desarrollo sostenible

  


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